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term definition
Malasartas An alternative art journal started in 1975 in Rio de Janeiro by Waltercito Caldas, José Resende, Cildo Meireles and other young artists.

Manipulated Photography Any photograph that has been altered by any means. The attempt here is to enhance the effect of the photograph by further manipulation. This has been used as an art form since the mid 1970's.

Marble A type of stone traditionally used in sculpture and architecture. A metamorphic rock (metamorphosed calcite or dolomite), finely grained, dense, with a nondirectional structure, capable of taking a high polish, and often irregularly veined. It is crystalline, compact variety of metamorphosed limestone, consisting primarily of calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2), or a combination of both minerals. Pure calcite is white, but mineral impurities add color in variegated patterns.

Marielito One of the more than 125,000 Cubans who immigrated to the U.S. during the Mariel boatlift, when American restrictions on Cuban immigration were relaxed between 21 April and 26 September.

Maroons Runaway slaves and their descendents who escaped their captors and avoided enslavement in the Caribbean, the Guyana and Brazil. Because of their autonomy, they have retained many of their African traditions

Martin Fierro An Argentine periodical launched in 1924 in Buenos Aires. Martin Fierro subscribed and propogated a cosmopolitan modernism, rejecting both the past and the ‘absurd need to promote intellectual nationalism. In contrast to the politically oriented Amauta, it both asserted American independence and acknowledged the inevitability of European influence. It states: "Martin Fierro believes in the importance of the intellectual contribution of the Americas, after taking a scissors to each and every umbilical cord."

Mas Preferred term for Trinidad carnival, derived from.

Medium The material or technique used by an artist to produce a work of art. It may also refer to the vehicle or solvent with which powdered pigments are mixed to make paint of the desired consistency. The plural form is media.

Mesoamerican art Mesoamerica is a region extending south and east from central Mexico to include parts of Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and Honduras. In Pre-Columbian times, it was inhabited by various civilizations, including the Olmec and the Mayan.

Mezzotint A relief printing method used in intaglio printing that reverses the engraving process. A metal plate is abraded with a special tool and is made to have an overall burr. It would print a solid soft black. The design is then made by smoothing the surface with a burnisher so that it will not print in the burnished areas. The name comes from the combination of the Italian words mezzo, meaning half, and tinta, meaning tone. This combination giving the word mezzotint, or halftone. This is the unique property of this method in that with varying degrees of burnishing, different degrees of darkness can be achieved. . The gradation of tone from solid black areas to pure white gives the mezzotint the striking contrasts for which this medium is best known. The main drawbacks to this method is the lack of fine detail and the labor of preparing the steel plate.

Mixed Media Art of the 20th century which combines different types of physical material. Mixed media art can often refer to several disciplines, for example music, movement and environmental sculpture.

Modernism The deliberate departure from tradition and the use of innovative forms of expression that distinguish many styles in the arts and literature of the late nineteenth and the twentieth century. Modernism refers to this period's interest in new types of paints and other materials, in expressing feelings and ideas, in creating abstractions and fantasies, rather than representing what is real. This kind of art requires its audience to observe carefully in order to get some facts about the artist, his intentions, and his environment, before forming judgments about the work. Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906) is often called the "Father of Modernism".

Monochromatic Consisting of only a single color or hue; may include its tints and shades.

Montage A pictorial composition made by juxtaposing or superimposing many pictures or designs; closely tied to collage.

Mosaic A design made by cementing small pieces of hard, colored substances such as marble, stone, glass, ceramic, semiprecious stones, or other materials in the other.

Motif Any figure or design, when used either as the central element in a work or is repeated to create an architectural or decorative pattern. Also, a recurrent thematic element in any work.

Movement This refers to an implied motion-- the arrangement of elements in an image that create a sense of motion by using lines, gestures, shapes, forms, and textures that cause the eye to move over the work.

Mural A large design or picture, generally created on the wall of a public building, sometimes using the fresco technique. Among the important mural painters of the twentieth century are the three Mexican painters: José Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), Diego Rivera (1886-l957), and David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974).

Mythology Myths are universal, occurring in almost all cultures. They typically date from a time before the introduction of writing, when they were passed orally from one generation to the next. Myths deal with basic questions about the nature of the world and human experience, and because of their all-encompassing nature, myths can illuminate many aspects of a culture. The Renaissance was marked by a rebirth of interest in the mythologies of ancient Greece and Rome.

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