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||A body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, a group, a class, or a culture; examples are ethnocentrism and class-consciousness. A set of doctrines, beliefs, or ideals that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system which attempts to put experience of the world into some order. The result, particularly in Marxist thought, is a distortion of reality to maintain authority over it. Various applications of this sense of the word can be found in feminist and other types of critical activity, often very politically oriented. Others use the term with less political load, meaning one type of symbolic system among others, like art, religion, and science. |
||It is a thin, transparent glaze of color used in oil painting. This glaze is applied to the surface over a drawing. Sometimes called a veil; it goes directly on the white surface.
||A thick or lumpy application of paint, or deep brushstrokes, as distinguished from a flat, smooth paint surface. |
||It is a thin, transparent glaze of color used in oil painting. This glaze is applied to the surface over a drawing. Sometimes called a veil; it goes directly on the white surface. |
||A style of painting that started in France during the 1860s. Impressionist artists tried to paint candid glimpses of their subjects showing the effects of sunlight on things at different times of day. The leaders of this movement were: Camille Pissarro (French, 1830-1903), Edgar Degas (French, 1834-1917), Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926), and Pierre Renoir (French, 1841-1919). Some of the early work of Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906) fits into this style, though his later work so transcends it that it belongs to another movement known as Post-Impressionism. Impressionism, as such, was not highly influential in Latin America, but certain elements were taken from it, such as color palettes and used in various other ways. |
|Indigenism or Indigenismo
||Figurative socially conscious art focusing on indigenous themes. As the awareness of a distinctly unique and valid Latin American history cam to the forefront, writers such as Manuel Gamio in Mexico or José Mariátegui in Peru would write extensively on the plight of the indigenous population. Artists and groups such as the Mexican muralists or José Sabogal (1988-1956) in Peru would depict the injustices faced by the native peoples in socially direct and politically motivated ways. Unfortunately the official praise of the Indian heritage did not translate itself into direct forms of action that would make a difference. There was a tendancy to depict the Indian in historical terms, thusly focusing on history as opposed to the present. This official pictorial language was also inevitably adopted by the upper classes that it only romanticized the Indian and obscured the conditions of exploitation.
||This term is used in art to mean any work that is designed to be set up for viewing by the public. It is often designed for a specific site. They were first used in art in the 1970's and are still being done today. They are not as common today perhaps because of their unsalability. Most are only installed for a short time and then either moved or dismantaled. They can include any number or type of objects and activities imaginable.
||Intaglio printing is the opposite of relief printing, in that the image is cut or incised into a metal plate with various tools or with acids. The wide variety of methods used gives this medium its enormous range. The two basic types of intaglio printing are engraving the image into the plate with finely ground tools called needles, burnishers, scrapers, and rockers, and etching the image with acids. |