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term definition
Readymade Process in which the artist elevated everyday objects or an object manufactured for some other purpose, such as a bicycle wheel or a bottle rack, to the status of sculpture simply by exhibiting them in a gallery and presented by them as works of art. Between 1914 and 1921, Marcel Duchamp (French, 1887-1968), who originated this concept, selected and signed, among others, a snow shovel, a comb, and a urinal. He occasionally altered readymades (sometimes called assisted readymades)-- the most famous of which was a cheap reproduction of Mona Lisa on which Duchamp drew a mustache.

Realism The opposite of idealization. The realistic and natural representation of people, places, and/or things in a work of art. One of the common themes of postmodernism is that this popular notion of an unmediated presentation is not possible. This sense of realism is sometimes considered synonymous with naturalism.

Re-figuración Paraguayan art movement active in the 1970ís that combined an analysis of visual pictorial language with considerations of the human condition. Artists include Osvaldo Salerno and Luis A. Boh. This commitment to Modernism was coupled with dramatic figural content and existential philosophical concerns.

Relief A type of sculpture in which form project from a background. There are three degrees or types of relief: high, low, and sunken. In high relief, the forms stand far out from the background. In low relief (best known as bas-relief), they are shallow. In sunken relief, also called hollow or intaglio; the backgrounds are not cut back and the points in highest relief are level with the original surface of the material being carved.

Roto2 Area of South West Nigeria. Yoruba religion includes a great variety of gods. Vestiges of Yoruba culture are found especially in Cuba and Brazil, where Yorubans were imported as slaves.

Ruptura A movement in Mexican art known for its ejection of the official Escuela Mexicana, the institutionalized form of art in Mexico. Artists like Rufino Tamayo (1899-1991), Cordelia Urueta (b. 1915) Hector Xavier (b. 1921), Alberto Gironella (b. 1929), Enrique Echeverría (1923-72), and José Luis Cuevas (b.1934), attempted tro expres their individualities, their respective ways of assimilating international Modernist vocabularies.